Refers to the style and period associated with the reign of Mehmed II, 'the Conqueror.' He succeeds his father Murad II, reigning during his abdication from 1444 to 1446 and later from 1451 to 1481. Mehmed expanded the Ottoman Empire in all directions, ended the thousand-year Byzantine Empire, conquering Constantinople in 1453 and the Morea and Trebizond in 1461. Upon capturing Constantinople, he made the great city the capital of his new empire, changing the name to Istanbul. During his reign, he sponsored major building projects to embellish the city and lay the foundations for the imperial court organization that was to characterize the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Mehmed founded the Old Palace to serve as the residence for the harems of former sultans, and was responsible for the layout of the New Palace, known as Topkapi. He also ordered the construction of the Çinilli Kiosk, a building of Iranian plan and decorated by Venetian painter Gentili Bellini. He also commissioned medals from the Italian artist and amassed a huge collection of books in both European and Islamic languages. Also during his reign, communities of craftsmen in many categories were established, such as bookbinders, calligraphers, silk and carpet weavers, and metalworkers.