Refers to the style and period associated with the reign of the Islamic dynasty that began to rule in Anatolia in 1281 until the promulgation of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic in 1924. Under the support of Ottoman sultans, a distinct architectural style developed that combined the Islamic traditions of Anatolia, Iran, and Syria with those of the Classical world and Byzantium. The result was a rationalist approach that favored spatial unity and clarity, the most important structure being the kulliye, a building complex combining religious, educational and charitable buildings. The main architectural theme of this complex was the domed square unit and combinations of varying spatial and architectonic expressions. The mosque, and in some cases the mosque-convent, was the crowning achievement. Under the conquest of Constantinople and the establishment of new administrative palaces across the empire, the relationship between Ottoman patrons and the artist became centralized. A corps of court architects employed architects of different ranks, and controlled all building activity throughout the empire. A community of craftsman brought together societies of artists and craftsman, forming the imperial design studio where illuminated manuscripts, tiles, woodwork, carved stone, jade, and metal objects, along with carpets and textiles were produced. These works typically chronicled the important events of a sultan's rule. During the 18th and 19th century, Ottoman art was increasingly westernized in style, often incorporating elements of European Baroque style.