Refers to artists working in China beginning around 1100, and in Korea and Japan in later periods. They are characterized by being primarily scholars and gentlemen, which they held made them distinct from, and superior to, professional painters and craftsmen. They believed that an art work revealed the character of the person who painted it and that quality in art was dependent upon the moral rectitude and intellect of the artist. They typically integrated poetry, calligraphy, and simple monochromatic painting into a single work. Their works often had a learned literary content. They preferred calligraphic expressionism over realistic and detailed depictions, often making allusions to antique styles and using deliberately primitive or naive techniques. Motifs such as bamboo, plum, or flowers were used to showcase brushwork.