Refers most often to the ideas of a heterogeneous religious movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries that flourished mainly in Britain. Deism also became very popular in 18th-century Germany. The movement was concerned with defending the rationality of religion and belief in God in the face of rising skepticism, especially as a consequence of Newton's laws. According to Deist writers, there exists a supreme being who initiated creation and is thus the basis of reality, but who does not intervene in the world and its natural laws (i.e. does not answer prayers or perform miracles). Nevertheless, Deism holds that religion is natural to humanity, and emphasizes natural religion as opposed to revealed religion or the teachings of churches. Natural religion comes from a certain body of religious knowledge that is inborn in everyone or that can be acquired through reason. Important Deist writings include Matthew Tindal's 'Christianity as Old as the Creation' (1730), the so-called 'Deist Bible.' Other important English Deists were Lord Herbert of Cherbury and Anthony Ashley Cooper.