Comprises the island of the same name and surrounding islands, all of relatively recent geological origin. Norwegian farming and fishing communities were established here in the 9th century, during the Viking age of exploration, by a mixed Norse and Celtic population. Noted as the world's oldest democracy; a national assembly (Althing) was established in 930. It united with Norway in 1262, with Denmark in 1380. Was an independent kingdom in union with Denmark in 1918, it ended in 1944. The official language is Icelandic.

Quick Facts on Iceland

Go Historic ID
354,234 (#177 in world) (2021 est.)
Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German
Ethnic Groups
homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norse and Celts 81%, population with foreign background (immigrants and persons having at least one parent who was born abroad) 19% (2018 est.)
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (official) 67.2%, Roman Catholic 3.9%, Reykjavik Free Church 2.8%, Hafnarfjordur Free Church 2%, Asatru Association 1.2%, The Independent Congregation .9%, other religions 4% (includes Zuist and Pentecostal), none 6.7%, other or unspecified 11.3% (2018 est.)