Refers to the religious order founded ca. 1140 by Gilbert of Sempringham (ca. 1083-1189) in Lincolnshire, England. The only purely English monastic order, it included both men and women. Gilbert attempted to model his order on that of the Cistercians; when the Cistercians refused to accept communities of nuns under their aegis, Gilbert had his nuns instructed by priests following the Augustinian Rule. Until the dissolution the Gilbertines were popular and were favored by the Crown, as they did not owe allegiance to foreign superiors as did members of other orders.