Refers to the Protestant body derived from the Reformation of Martin Luther (1483-1546). Lutheran doctrine recognizes three sacraments (baptism, Eucharist, and penance) and centers around the concepts of justification by faith alone and the preisthood of all believers. Like most other Protestant denominations, Lutheranism emphasizes the importance of scripture rather than church authority. The doctrine is based on the Augsburg Confession, the Apology, Luther's two Catechisms, and the Formula of Concord. Lutheran churches first flourished in Scandinavia and Germany, later spreading to other parts of Europe. Lutheranism spread to the United States after the 1740s through immigration and spread to Africa and Asia through Lutheran missionary work in the 19th century. Lutheranism is one of the three main branches of Protestantism (the other two being Anglican and Calvinist), and it is the oldest and largest.